Annual Report 2012

<Note CO2 emissions

Starting with 2012, version 3.0 of the WBCSD/CSI protocol was fully adopted into our systems for the calculation and reporting of CO2 emissions.

Cement production is the main source of TITAN Group carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, both direct and indirect. Cement plants generate carbon dioxide emissions as part of their production process, contributing to the greenhouse effect and climate change.

Direct CO2 emissions, from the production of cement itself, are attributed to:

  • “Decarbonization”, which is the process of transforming raw materials (mainly limestone) into clinker, the main component of cement.
  • Fuel consumption, since most fuels burned in the kilns (coal, oil and pet-coke) create CO2 as a product of the chemical reaction between carbon (C) and oxygen (Ο2)

Indirect emissions of carbon dioxide are released during the production of electricity as well as during the production and transportation of raw materials and fuels required for the production of clinker and cement. In addition the transportation of our products contributes to overall indirect emissions.

Year-to-year variations of total and specific CO2 emissions are the combined effect of changes that are associated to the raw materials component, the fuels component or both. Specific emissions can also be affected by the clinker-to-cement ratio.

Changes in the raw meal-to-clinker ratio and the chemical composition of raw materials will have an effect on the calcinations component of the emitted CO2. On the other hand, changes in the average specific thermal energy consumption (thermal energy needed for the production of 1 ton of clinker) as well as the average CO2 emission factor of the fuel mix (CO2 emitted for each thermal energy unit provided by the fuel mix) will result in changing the fuel component of the emitted CO2. The increase of alternative fuel use helps to this direction, playing an important role.